Tests for Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD)


It has always been true that we »sleep with all the partners our current partner has slept with«. Sexually transmitted diseases (STD-s) are infections that are usually transmitted by sexual contact. Sexual contact includes oral, vaginal, and anal sex.
The best protection against STD-s is abstinence, a faithful relationship of two healthy partners, or the use of barrier contraceptives (most notably, the condom).
The condom is the only type of contraceptive the protects against both disease transfer and unwanted pregnancy. Unfortunately, even the condom isn’t 100% effective – that includes both STD-s and pregnancy.
Many sexually transmitted diseases show no signs of infection (are asymptomatic infections). Later, consequences can begin to show in the form of difficulty with conception or extrauterine pregnancy.
We must think about the possibility of infection every time we are about to have sexual intercourse. The risk is significantly greater when there are many different sexual partners and fleeting sexual encounters (promiscuous sexual behavior).

Gonorrhea is a very common STD caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
It is transmitted by sexual intercourse and mainly affects sexual organs. There also exists a form of gonorrhea affecting the conjunctiva of the eye in the newborn – acquired during birth if the mother is infected. The anus and throat can also be infected.
Infected males can develop a discharge from the urethra, accompanied by itchiness and stinging pain during urination, all of which beginning a few days after infection. After about two weeks, the infection progresses from acute to chronic. The complications of untreated infection in the male are prostatitis and epididymitis.
In the female, especially in the early period after infection, there are usually no noticeable signs. Occasionally there is a yellowish–purulent discharge. Infertility and extrauterine pregnancy are the possible consequences of disease progression to the upper genital tract.
Gonococcal infection can be diagnosed via laboratory tests of acquired samples. It can be treated with antibiotics.

Syphilis is an STD that can affect all the organs in the human body. Syphilis is caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum. More than 95% of infections are the consequence of sexual intercourse with an infected person. The other 5% is caused by kissing, biting, and other forms of contact with a syphilis patient who has skin ulcers. There exists congenital syphilis – transmitted from the mother to the child.
Syphilis can be divided into two categories – early and late-stage (up to 1 year and more than 1 year post infection). We also differentiate between acquired and congenital infection.
We routinely test for syphilis in all pregnant women.
The drug of choice is still penicillin.

Genital warts are the most common STD. It is caused by Human papillomaviruses (HPV-s), most commonly HPV 6 and HPV 11. The incubation period can be as long as several months. The changes themselves are harmless (benign), but they are very bothersome and unpleasant in the form of growths of the external genitalia or vagina.
The therapy is local (ointment, laser, cryotherapy).

It is caused by the Herpes simplex virus type 2 (genital type) and type 1 (oral type). The infection is often caused by oral sex with a person who has active oral herpes. The infection causes the formation of small vesicles on the genitalia and its surrounding. They can later fester. The lymph nodes in the fold can become enlarged and painful to the touch.
The viral infection is permanent. It becomes active again with certain triggers (a drop in immunity, stress, illness, menstrual period).
If the signs of infection are present at the time of birth, a C-section is performed to prevent the infection spreading to the newborn.
The treatment is antiviral drugs.

It is caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis.
In the male, approximately 14 days after infection, urethritis and later epididymitis can occur. The infection can also pass without noticeable symptoms.
In the female, chlamydia can spread to the urethra, cervix, uterine mucosa, and fallopian tubes. It can cause pain in the lesser pelvis. Most commonly, the infection passes without symptoms.
The consequences can include infertility, extrauterine pregnancy, and chronic pain of the lesser pelvis.
The infection is treated with antibiotics.

The infection is caused by the bacteria Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma spp.
The infection is often without symptoms but can present as urethritis in both sexes. With urethritis, urination is painful, there can be discharge present, as well as constant pain in the lower abdomen.
It is treated with antibiotics.

Infection is caused by the protozoa Trichomonas vaginalis.
Men usually don’t experience any symptoms, rarely inflammation of the urethral opening and pain during urination.
Women experience foaming, foul-smelling discharge from the vagina a few days after infection. It is often accompanied by itchiness of the external genitalia and pain during urination.
The infection is treated with antibiotics.

At our outpatient clinic, we test for:

  • Chlamydia (swab of the cervix or urethra)
  • Gonorrhea (swab of the cervix or urethra)
  • Genital ureaplasma and mycoplasma (swab of the cervix or urethra)
  • Genital herpes (swab of the mucosa or blood test)
  • Hepatitis A, B, and C (blood test)
  • HIV (blood test)
  • Vaginal swab for pathogenic bacteria